Glossary of Terms


Generally denotes that an area is not available for a particular use or uses; refer to specific definitions found in law, regulations, or policy guidance for application to individual programs. For example, 43 CFR 8340.0-5 sets forth the specific meaning of 'closed' as it relates to OHV use, and 43 CFR 8364 defines 'closed' as it relates to closure and restriction orders.

Coarse Filter Management

Land management that addresses the needs of all associated species, communities, environments, and ecological processes in a land area. (See fine filter management.)

Cohesive strategy

A Forest Service strategic document, formally titled Protecting People and Sustaining Resources in Fire-adapted Ecosystems: A Cohesive Strategy,that outlines how fire managers throughout the National Forest System are to prioritize their fire hazard reduction efforts. This strategy concentrates on short fire return interval forests (Fire Regimes 1 and 2).


A cooperative process in which interested parties, often with widely varied interests, work together to seek solutions with broad support for managing public and other lands. This may or may not involve an agency as a cooperating agency.

Collaborative Partnerships and Collaborative Stewardship

Refers to people working together, sharing knowledge and resources, to achieve desired outcomes for public lands and communities within statutory and regulatory frameworks.

Collector Roads

Classified roads serving smaller land areas than arterial roads; collector roads collect traffic from local roads and usually connect to forest arterial roads or State and County highways. They are operated for either constant or intermittent service depending on land use and resource management objectives.

Commercial timber harvest

The removal of merchantable trees, portions of trees, and timber products from the National Forest System lands.

Commodity-purpose timber sale (commodity purpose timber harvest)

A component of the Forest Service timber sale program that includes timber sales made primarily to supply timber in response to society's demand for wood.


(a) A group of species of plants and/or animals living and interacting at a particular time and place.(b) A group of people residing in the same place and under the same government; spatially defined places such as towns.


The numbers and kinds of plants and animals in an area. What an ecosystem is composed of. Composition could include water, minerals, trees, snags, wildlife, soil, microorganisms, and certain plant species,

Comprehensive Evaluation Report (CER)

A Forest Service planning document that evaluates ecological, social, and economic conditions and trends that contribute to sustainability.


An indiivdual or a private company that is under permit or contract to operate a business on Federal land (e.g., campground, parking lot, ice cream stand, or boat launch). Not all concessionaires accept National Parks and Federal Recreation Lands Passes, based on the terms of their contracts.

Condition Class 1 - Low risk from uncharacteristic wildfire effects.

Fire regimes within this class are within the historical range of variability for fire frequency and intensity.

Condition Class 2 - Moderate risk from uncharacteristic wildfire effects.

Fire regimes are beginning to be altered since one or more wildfires have been suppressed allowing for forests to become noticeably denser especially with younger sapling trees.

Condition Class 3 - High risk from uncharacteristic wildfire effects.

The fire regimes in this condition class are significantly altered, having missed many natural fires. Forests that were once open and park-like are now densely stocked.

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